In water polo, teams score goals by throwing the water polo ball into the goal of the opposite team, making sure that the ball completely crosses the goal line.
Even if the ball is tipped off of the goalie, or in the goalie's hands, if the entirety of the water polo ball crosses the goal line, then it is considered a goal and one point is awarded. The ball is out of bounds if it goes outside or around the goal. The goal line extends from goal post to goal post, parallel to the crossbar at the top of the goal. Every goal is worth one point, whether it is a regular goal or a penalty shot.
During a water polo game, a team has 35 seconds to either shoot or score the ball. If they don't shoot the ball or score, then it is a shot clock violation and the ball is turned over. If the team shoots and the ball bounces off of the goal and back into possession of the same team, then the shot clock resets.
A penalty shot is a free shot into the goal from the 5-meter line. The goalie can defend the goal, but no field player may be near the shooter. Penalty shots are usually awarded due to the following fouls:
A penalty shot must be done in one continuous motion once the ref signals that the shooter may shoot the ball. If not done in a continuous motion, the shot is forfeited and possession is turned over to the other team.
There are four main types of dry shots when attempting to score a goal in water polo; the power shot, sidearm shot, skip shot, and lob shot. The power shot is when the player lifts their body out of the water to help shoot the ball. A sidearm shot is when there is more backspin on the ball and it slides across the top of the water. A skip shot is when the player bounces the wall off the water's surface and into the net, behind the goalkeeper. A lob shot is a slower moving, arched shot that is meant to arch over the goalkeeper and into the back of the goal.
There is also what is known as a wet shot. A wet shot is when the shot is taken while the player is horizontal in the water, rather than upright and keeping the ball "dry" above the water. The three main wet shots are the screw shot, the tee shot, and the shove shot and can all be performed while still swimming. Because the shot is taken while still horizontal in the water, there is no need for a high, dry pass, since the shooter's body isn't upright and rising out of the water in order to take the shot.
A wet shot is commonly used when moving towards an open goal, but there is a defender preventing the shooter from going upright to receive a dry pass or shoot.
The goal line in water polo runs from goal post to goal post and parallel to the crossbar. The entirety of the ball must cross this line in order to be considered a goal. If the ball "bars out"- hits the crossbar and then shoots out of the goal- it does not count as a goal. If the ball is tipped off of the goalie or in the goalie's possession, once the ball crosses that goal line, then it is counted as a goal.
In water polo, a goal is worth one point. Unlike in other sports where different types of shots might have different point values, each goal in water polo is with one point, even if it is a free penalty shot.
Common shots in water polo include the power shot, sidearm shot, skip shot, and lob shot. For all of these shots, the attacker is upright in the water, sometimes even propelling themselves out of the water up to their hips, to get more power and accuracy on their shot.
A wet shot is taken when the attacker is horizontal in the water rather than upright. This type of shot is typically taken when a defender is preventing the attacker from being able to become upright in the water in order to either catch a dry pass or take a normal shot.
A penalty shot is a free shot taken from the 5 meter line. It is usually the result of a foul that allows a team to take a penalty shot. No defender is allowed to interfere with the shot and the shot must be taken in one continuous motion. If there is any break in the continuous motion of the shot, the penalty shot is forfeited and possession of the ball is given to the other team.