We'll talk about the violations in volleyball, when they happen, and the consequences.
First, we'll talk about the violations that can happen during service, boundary violations, and other common violations you'll hear about during a game.
We'll finish with a discussion of the referees and their calls and cards that they use.
There are a few things that can go wrong during a serve, a referee will call a service error if:
If the server steps outside of the service area prior to serving the ball, a referee will call a foot fault. The server is allowed to land outside of the service area AFTER the serve, but must be inside the area, not on the service line, before serving the ball.
Players are considered out-of-bounds when they step on boundary lines. When a player does not have the ball, they are free to move around the court, but they must stay in boundary lines when making a hit. Players are allowed to go into the free zones to make hits.
The ball is considered "in" as long as it is on or inside the boundary lines. When a team hits the ball out-of-bounds it is called dead by a referee resulting in a point for the opposite team.
The ball is also called out-of-bounds when it hits the antennae or any other object outside of the court.
When either of these things happens a referee will call an out-of-bounds or antenna violation.