A penalty, or violation, is called by a referee on a player who breaks a rule during the volleyball game. Violations result in a side out, which means possession of the ball and a point for the other team.
Here is a list of volleyball penalties:
There are a few things that can go wrong during a serve, a referee will call a service error if:
If the server steps on or over the service line while serving the ball, the line ref will call a foot fault. On a jump serve, the server is allowed to land on or over the service line, but must start the jump before the line.
There are several ways to commit ball handling errors in volleyball. If a player contacts the ball illegally, the up or down referee will call for a violation and that player's team will lose that point.
Touching the ball two times in a row, or committing a double, is a common ball handling error. It will most often be called when a player tries to set a ball with their hands but mis-hits it. This will cause the ball to spin, making the double-touch easy to detect. Another form of a ball handling error is called a lift. This is when a player has elongated contact with the ball and essentially lifts it instead of hitting it upward. Similar to lifting, players can be called for carrying or throwing the ball. Again, this is where the player comes into contact with the ball and holds on to it, directing it instead of hitting it. The last ball handling error is if there are more than 3 touches on the ball before it goes over the net. When the fourth player touches the ball, the referee will call a violation and that team will lose the point.
Reaching violations can happen both during blocking and hitting. Blocking players are not allowed to reach across the plane of the net to touch the ball if the opposite team has not touched the ball three times yet, and there is a player present who can get to the ball. Similarly, if there is an overpass, hitters cannot reach across the net to hit the ball if the ball has not yet crossed to their side of the net. Instead, they must wait for the ball to come to their side of the court before trying to hit it back over.
There is a centerline underneath the net that divides the two halves of the court. Players cannot have any part of their body cross this line, as if they do it will result in their team losing a point and they could also possibly cause an injury to the other team. In the case of a hand or foot, the entire hand or foot must cross the line for this violation to be called. This rule exists to ensure that players do not go under the net and get in the way of a player who is landing from a hit or a block.
One exception to this rule is if a player is running to save a ball. If the ball is overpassed and is going out of bounds, a player can go under the net as long as they stay out of the court bounds. They can return the ball to their side, outside of the antenna, for a third player to send the ball safely to the opponent's side.
Before the beginning of a set, both team's coaches must show the referees their rotations. The players on the court must stay in the order listed on that rotation throughout the whole set. If the players end up in different positions and serve out of order, a rotation violation is called and that team will lose the point and the serve. There is a referee on the sideline who keeps track of substitutions and rotations to make sure that players do not get out of order. This rule ensures that each player on the court serves, rather than one player serving more often. It also ensures that teams cannot change their lineups in the middle of a game to change matchups of players at the net.
In the rotation, there are front row players and back row players. These back row players are positioned behind the 10 foot line on the court. When their team attacks a ball that is above the plane of the net, these backrow players must attack from behind the 10 foot line. Similar to a serving foot fault, if the player hits the ball with their foot on or over the 10 foot line, a back row attack will be called and that player's team will lose the point. Back row players are also not allowed to jump and block at the net. This mostly applies to back row setters who play in the front row. They can set from the front row, but cannot block or hit a ball with their hands or arms above the net.