Because there are no referees or observers in most tournaments of Ultimate, each player has the responsibility to learn and understand the rules of the game. When playing and making a call, they must announce it so that people can hear it and play may stop in order to discuss the call. When play has stopped, the players in question must come to a fair decision as to what the following steps are to continue the game.
If a call is made against another player, they can choose to contest the call made. To "contest" a call means that the player does not agree with the call, to "not contest" means that they agree with the call.
A stall count is when a defensive mark gives the thrower a limited amount of seconds before the disc can leave their hand. Majority of the time, the offense has ten seconds before the disc must be released in a seven-on-seven game. The defense must count out loud for the thrower to hear it and they must be within 10 feet from them to start stalling.
If the mark gets to the tenth stall count and the thrower has not released the disc by then, the mark can call a "stall." If the thrower does not contest, the disc is a turnover and the other team gets to start from where the thrower was.
The thrower can throw the disc but the mark can call a stall and if the disc was not caught by a teammate, then the disc is a turnover.
If the teammate caught the disc and the thrower contested the stall, then the mark will come in on stall eight when the disc is put in play.
If the mark is counting faster than at a seconds speed, then the thrower can call a fast count on the mark. There is no stoppage of play but the mark must subtract one stall count from the one they had reached when the thrower made the call. If the marker comes to stall seven and the thrower calls "fast count" then the mark must continue off stall six.
If the thrower tried to call "fast count" but cannot call it before stall 10, then the play is treated as a contested stall and comes back in on stall eight.
A mark must give some space for the thrower to make their moves. If the mark invades the space of the thrower by a diameter of the disc then the thrower can call disc space. Play does not stop when this is called.
Only one mark is allowed to surround the thrower at a time, otherwise, it will be double teaming. If another defensive player is blocking the thrower within 10 feet, then the thrower can call a double team and the other player must step away. Play does not stop when this is called.
Unintentional double teaming is allowed when an offensive player is within 10 feet of the thrower and their defensive is following them.
The mark is not allowed to touch the thrower when marking. If this happens, the thrower may call contact. This does not stop play and the stall must drop down one from where it was.
The thrower has a pivot foot but if that pivot foot moves from its position, then the mark (or any other defensive player on the field) can call a travel.
It is also a travel if a player catches the disc but takes too many steps to slow down or change direction
It is considered a foul when there is non-incidental contact between the thrower and marker. The marker cannot hit the arms or legs of the thrower while the disc is in their hand. If the mark moves, but ends up hitting the hand of the thrower before the disc is released and it affects the throw, then it is a foul on the marker.
If the mark does not contest, then the disc comes back to the thrower and stall count goes down to zero. If contested, the disc comes back to the thrower but the stall count continues off from where it ended.
If a player hinders the ability of another to catch the disc, whether it's tripping, pushing, or hitting their hand out of the way, a foul is called on that player.
If uncontested, the fouled player gains possession where the infraction occurred. If contested, the disc goes back to the thrower.
Players may not impede other players from obtaining the disc by forcing them out of the space. One is allowed to position themselves in an advantageous spot but pushing is not allowed, that is considered a blocking foul.
If a receiver gains possession of the disc but another player hits or kicks the disc out of their hand, then this is a strip. The disc must go back to the receiver.
If a player calls injury on the field, all play must stop and wait until the player either recovers or gets off the field. If the injured player decides to get off the field, then that team must have a sub to replace them. The other team has an option to replace one of their players on the field as well, but they do not have to.
When on defense, if any other player gets in the way of the defender and the player they are defending, then this is a pick. The defender can only call a pick if they are within 10 yards of the player and if they could make a play on the disc.
If a pick is called, the disc is let go and not caught by a teammate, then it is a turnover.
If the disc is let go and caught by the teammate that the defense called a pick on, then the disc must return to the thrower.
If the disc is let go and caught by any teammate other than the one that the defense called a pick on, then the pick was unaffected. All play must still stop and the defense who called the call is the only one who can move to catch up with the player that they are on.
If a player does not properly execute or continually violates a rule, another player can call violation. Some violations include: