The team that is playing in their stadium or arena is considered the home team. Leagues determine far in advance which team will be playing each game in their own stadium and which team will be traveling to that stadium. Professional teams usually play half of their total games in a season at their home stadium/arena and play the other half of their games at another team's stadium. Each league's number of games vary, leading to a different number of home games for each team. For Major League Baseball teams, any team will play 81 home games in a season, in the National Basketball Association any team will play 41 home games, and in the National Football League each team will play eight home games throughout the regular season. In rare cases multiple teams share a single stadium which leads to confusion involving the home team. The league always determines who will be the home team and who will be the away team in each game that is played throughout the season.
There are many ways to identify which team is the home team and which team is the away team. To begin with, visuals usually indicate whose venue the game is being played at, there will likely be the logo and colors of the home team all around the arena or stadium. Also, most of the time, home team fans are the majority in the stands, and so paying attention to the crowd is a pretty effective way. Other than that, in television broadcasts in the United States the home team will be displayed second on the scoreboard, although that is not a rule. In other countries that rule may vary, so keep an eye open for that.
The team that is playing their own stadium is considered the home team while the team that has to travel to that stadium is considered the away team. There can only be one home team and one away team in each game that is played. All sports play postseason games at their home stadium, however, in football the Super Bowl is always played at a neutral site in order to create a balanced playing field for both teams that are playing. Usually when looking at a list of games the home team will be the one the is listed underneath the other team that they are playing. Also if a game is listed as team A at team B, team B would be the home team in this scenario since it is stating that one team is playing at another team.
Home field advantage is the perceived advantage that a sports team has when playing on their own field. Even though many people believe that home field advantage is real, many studies have proven that it is statistically irrelevant. However, many players and fans believe that home field advantage is true and therefore tend to play better at home. Teams tend to play better at home because they have more fans that are cheering for them on their home field and rooting against their opponent, sometimes being successful in rattling their team's opponent. Even though it has been proven to be statistically irrelevant, gamblers actually give a betting edge to the team that is playing at home. Each sport is different, and therefore the home team receives a different number of points to their spread when at home. In the NFL home field advantage is worth about 2.5 points while in the NBA home field advantage is worth about 2.33 points.
The tradition of home teams wearing white jerseys all began in the early 20th century with the game of baseball. Visiting baseball teams did not have easy access to laundry services outside of their own cities and were forced to wear the same dirty jerseys game after game. Because of this, it was better for the away teams to wear darker color jerseys in order to hide the dirt stains that were present on their jerseys. Since the away teams would wear darker color jerseys the home teams would wear lighter color or white jerseys. Basketball likely stole the idea of white home jerseys from the MLB but recently many sports have started to move away from the traditional white jerseys.