In soccer, a handball is considered an offense that violates the rules of the game. True to its common name of football, soccer requires that most players only contact the game ball with their feet. Therefore, intentional, incidental, or accidental contact between the ball and a non-goalie player’s hand is against the rules of soccer and can be penalized.
One of the key rules of soccer is that all field players may not contact the ball with their hands or arms. Soccer employs very strict rules regarding the movement of the ball down the pitch, and it is clear in the rules of soccer that no player can “handle” the ball with their hands or arms, except in very limited situations. Soccer goalies are traditionally exempt from the handball rule while they are in their penalty zone, as they are permitted to use their hands to block a goal or to throw a ball onto the pitch after stopping a goal. Soccer players are also permitted to use their hands for a throw-in, standing out of bounds and throwing the ball onto the pitch to resume play.
A handball offense occurs when a player touches the ball with any part of their arm, from the tips of the fingers to the lower armpit. In FIFA soccer, it is considered a handball offense when a player: deliberately touches the ball with their hand or arm, including by moving the hand or arm towards the ball; scores in the opponents’ goal directly from their hand or arm, even if accidental, including by the goalkeeper; and scoring a goal or creating an opportunity for goal-scoring immediately after touching the ball with their hand or arm. It is also ruled a handball if a player touches the ball when their hand or arm has unnaturally extended their range of contact with the ball, meaning that the position of the player’s arms are not considered a logical result of their movements. Handballs are also called when a player touches the ball if their hand or arm has been lifted above or beyond their shoulder level, as in being raised over their head.
However, there are certain instances when a ball strikes a player’s hand and is not considered a handball offense. These instances include: when a ball touches a player’s arm directly after being struck or played by the player’s own head or body (including their foot); directly after being struck or played by the head and body of another player who is near them; if the hand or arm is close to the body and not in an illogical position pertaining to their movements; or when a player falls, and their hand or arm impacts the ball while supporting their fall but is not extended away from the body to touch the ball deliberately.
In soccer, the traditional penalty awarded for a handball offense is a direct free kick. In a direct free kick, the soccer ball is placed stationary at the spot where the offense occurred, and a player from the non-offending team kicks the ball, usually in an attempt to score a goal. If the ball goes into the other team’s net, a goal is awarded, and if it does not, it can either be played by another teammate or saved by the goalie. Handball offenses earn a free kick in FIFA soccer and most youth soccer leagues, such as USA Soccer. If the defense commits a handball within their own penalty box, a penalty shot will be awarded to the opposing offense. Players who intentionally cause a handball offense can be given a yellow or red card.
In soccer, the signal for a handball offense involves the referee holding one arm away from his body at an angle with the hand pointing down towards the pitch. The referee then uses his opposite hand to strike the wrist of his downward-pointing arm. In the aftermath of a handball call, the referee will also traditionally perform the signal for a direct free kick, which involves blowing his whistle and pointing his non-whistle arm in the direction of the kick.
- During play, Player 1 kicks the soccer ball down the pitch, causing it to fly into the air towards his teammate, Player 2. Player 3, on the opposing team, deliberately moves their arm to deflect the ball away from Player 2. As a result, Player 3 receives a handball offense, and a direct free kick is awarded to Player 1 at the spot where Player 3 touched the ball.
- During play, Player 1 moves the ball towards his opponents’ goal and passes to Player 2, who is in position to score. However, the ball strikes Player 2’s arm by accident, and the deflection causes the ball to go into the opponent’s goal. Since the ball struck Player 2’s arm instead of his foot and then proceeded into the goal, the goal is nullified due to a handball offense.
- Player 1 attempts to kick the ball over a pair of opposing players, both of whom jump in an attempt to headbutt the ball. Player 2, one of the opponents, moves to headbutt the ball, but the ball misses his head and hits his forearm. Player 2 receives a handball offense because his arms were extended over his shoulders, and a direct free kick is given to Player 1 at the spot of the foul.
Similar Violations to Handball
- Denial of Obvious Goal Scoring Opportunity
- Goalkeeper 6 Second Violations
- Goalkeeper Back Pass Violation
What is a handball in soccer?
A handball in soccer occurs whenever a non-goalie player (or a goalie outside of their penalty zone) touches the soccer ball with their hand, forearm, or upper arm, either deliberately or accidentally. A handball occurs whenever a player deliberately or accidentally strikes the ball with their arm and also applies when a teammate kicks the ball into their arm and causes the ball to go into the goal. However, if another player accidentally kicks the ball into a player’s arm, no offense occurs.
What are the consequences of being called for a handball in soccer?
Handball offenses are common in soccer. When a handball offense occurs, the non-offending team usually receives a direct free kick. In a direct free kick, the ball is at the spot of the foul, and a player from the non-offending team kicks the ball, usually in an attempt to score a goal. Handballs result in a free kick in FIFA soccer and most youth soccer leagues, including USA Soccer. Players who intentionally cause a handball offense can also be punished with a yellow or red card.
Is a shoulder a handball in soccer?
Shoulders are generally not considered handballs in soccer. According to FIFA rules, the upper boundary of the arm is considered to be the bottom of the armpit. Therefore, the upper part of the shoulder is not a part of the body that is considered a handball. Soccer players, therefore, can use their shoulders to touch the ball or score a goal without worrying about incurring a handball offense.