When a player is sent to the penalty box, their team is down a player. This is called being short-handed and it can last for 2 minutes or more.
The amount of the time that the player remains in the penalty box is based on the severity and type of penalty.
Penalties in hockey can be divided into six main categories.
A bench minor penalty in hockey is a minor penalty in ice hockey where players are sent to the penalty box for two minutes. Examples of bench-minor penalties are delay of game, face-off violation, or illegal substitution.
A match penalty in hockey is a type of penalty given to a player who purposely injures another player on the ice requiring them to enter the penalty box for five minutes. Examples include boarding, slashing, and spearing.
A misconduct penalty in hockey is a type of penalty given to a player requiring them to leave the ice for 10 minutes. A substitute player can immediately replace him on the ice. Examples include fighting or using profanity.
A game misconduct penalty in hockey is a very serious penalty where a player can be ruled off the ice for 10 minutes. A substitute player may retake his place on the ice. It does not result in a power play.
A coincidental penalty in hockey is when multiple penalties are called on a player or multiple players of the same team or both teams. The referee will do his best to cancel as many penalties out as possible to determine the on-ice strength.
Butt-ending in hockey is a penalty called against a player who hits another player with the butt-end of the hockey stick.
Clipping in hockey is a penalty called against who player who delivers a blow at or below the knees of an opposing player.
Cross-checking in hockey is a penalty where a defending player hits a player with only their stick and not the body. A cross-check is also with the shaft of the stick and is aimed at the torso or back of a player.
A delay of game in hockey is a minor penalty called on a player who causes a delay in the game such as purposely hitting the puck out-of-bounds. It is a minor penalty and will reward the opposing team with a power play depending on what the player did to cause the delay.
A delayed penalty in hockey is a delayed penalty when the opposing team commits a penalty but does not have possession of the puck. When any player on their team gains possession or the puck is declared dead the penalty will take effect.
A dive in hockey is when a hockey player dives onto the ice in attempt to gain possession of the puck or to a block an incoming shot or pass from the opposing team. It is also when a player embellishes a fall or injury in order to draw a penalty.
Elbowing in hockey is a penalty committed by a player that consists of directing a blow to another player using his elbow.
Goaltender interference in hockey is when a player on the opposing team makes direct contact with a goalie and inhibits his ability to perform his job of defending against shots on goal, while inside or outside of the crease.
Gross misconduct in hockey is a penalty that a player or coach commits that is considered unsportsmanlike. This rule has been abolished from the NHL and these misconducts have been addressed differently.
High sticking in hockey is when a player makes contact with another player using a stick above the player's shoulders. The player will receive a minor penalty and double minor penalty if the act draws blood.
Holding in hockey is the act of impeding the progress of another player by grabbing them.
Hooking in hockey is the act of restraining or impeding the movement of another player through the use of the hockey stick.
Interference in hockey is the act of impeding the progress of another player who is not in possession of the puck.
A restraining foul in hockey is a classification of fouls for holding, hooking, interference, or tripping fouls.
Roughing in hockey is a penalty called on a player for committing an act of excessive force to another player.
Slashing in hockey is a type of penalty given to player when a stick is used to hit an opposing player. Based on the degree of the hit, a minor penalty, major penalty, or match penalty can be given to the player.
Spearing in hockey is a type of penalty given to player when the point of the stick is used to hit an opposing player. Based on the degree of the hit, a minor penalty, major penalty, or match penalty can be given to the player.
A throwing the stick in hockey is a penalty that happens when a player throws their stick to either disrupt the puck or intends to injure.
Tripping in hockey is a type of penalty given to player when they cause an opposing player to lose balance on the ice by means of the stick or skate. A minor penalty is usually assessed to the offending player.
Unsportsmanlike conduct in hockey is a type of penalty given to player who says or commits an act that is unsportsmanlike and against the code of ethics defined in the rulebook. The offending player will receive a bench-minor penalty.
Yes, this is called a coach's challenge.