Icing in hockey causes a stop of play, and a new face-off. In order to get an icing call, a player must shoot the puck as hard as they can to the other side of the ice without the puck touching any other player. If the puck reaches the other team's goalline, and the player has dumped the puck from their own defensive side of the center red line, then an icing will be called.
Although some icings are by accident, some players purposely try to get icing calls in order to get a break during its stoppage of play. Icing's can also help players who are tired because they give them a chance to switch positions with one of their teammates on the bench. In special situations, like a penalty kill, players on the defensive team are allowed to ice the puck with no penalty, or stoppage of play.
Offside in hockey is a stoppage of play, that is located on one of the blue lines. Offsides is called on the offensive team trying to pick up momentum on their way into the offensive zone. It is called when an offensive player crosses the offensive blue line before the puck does. This can be called on players both with or without the puck, but only on the offensive team's skaters.
When one player trips another player, they will get a penalty for "tripping". Tripping is when one player purposely uses their hockey stick or body to make another player lose their balance and fall down. Although only considered a minor penalty, the player who has been called for tripping must sit in the penalty box for two minutes. This means that their team will be on penalty kill with only four skaters on the ice. The only way for the team to get back to full strength before the two minutes are up is if the team with five players scores a goal.
The main difference between minor and major penalties in hockey is the amount of time spent in the penalty box. For a minor penalty a player will sit in the box for about two minutes, and can come out early if the other team scores within that amount of time. With major penalties however, the player will sit in the penalty box for five minutes, and if the other team scores, they will remain in the box and their team must continue playing at a disadvantage with only four skaters. Some major penalties include boarding, slashing, and fighting.