Let's define the different features of a golf club and how they impact a golf shot.
The club head is the part of the golf club that connects to the shaft and makes contact with the ball and the ground at impact. The club head features various elements that dictates the type of golf shot a player may hit.
The shaft of a golf club is the long, tapered tube which connects the golfer's hands to the club head. The primary purpose of the golf shaft remains the same - to provide the player with a way to generate centrifugal force in order to effectively strike the ball.
Loft is the angle of the club face that controls trajectory and affects distance.
A degree is a measurement unit that, specific to golf, indicates how much loft a club club has. The more degrees of loft a golf club has, the higher the ball will fly and will generate more spin.
The club face, located on the club head, is the flat surface that makes contact with the golf ball at impact.
Grooves are long, thin indentations located on the club face. They affect the height and spin at which the golf ball travels.
The hosel is the part of the golf club where the club head and shaft connect. If the golf ball makes contact with the hosel, instead of the clubface at impact, then this will product a shank.
The toe is the edge of the club face that is farthest away from the shaft. Usually if the toe of the golf club makes contact with the golf ball, it will cause the golf club to turn over, often producing a draw or hook.
Bounce is the angle of the leading edge of a golfing iron, particularly a wedge, and the sole of the club. The more bounce a golf club has, the easier it is for the club to skid across the ground at impact instead of digging into the ground and creating a large divot.