Formula 1 Technical Regulations
F1 racing is a highly competitive motorsport featuring the world's best drivers piloting technologically advanced cars at breakneck speeds. The combination of strategy, skill, and speed makes for thrilling races that are filled with drama and unpredictability. With the constant evolution of technology and safety protocol, every season brings both new challenges and new rules. Read on to learn about the technical regulations of Formula 1 racing.
All Formula One participants, including FIA, teams, organizers, drivers, and circuits, are required to abide by the sport's rules and hold an FIA Super License. Vehicles with potentially dangerous construction may be banned by stewards. New technology must be approved by the FIA and can only be used for the current championship. Teams must prove compliance with all regulations to the FIA technical delegate and stewards during competition.
Aerodynamic components are all parts of the car in contact with the external air stream. Components must securely attach and produce a uniform surface. All bodywork must be nominally symmetrical with respect to Y=0, meaning both sides of the vehicle must be identical. Devices that bridge the gap between the car and the ground are prohibited. Compliance with these regulations will be checked digitally using CAD models provided by the teams and may be physically measured during a competition to ensure they remain within specified boundaries.
The car's weight, without fuel, must be more than 796 kg and can include ballast, permitting it is attached and immobile. The mass of the driver and ballast designated for this purpose at no time during competition may be less than 80kg. No substances can be added to the car during competition, and replacement parts must be equal to the original ones. An FIA technical delegate may weigh the car using dry-weather tires if necessary.
The "Power Unit" in a competition refers to the internal combustion engine, turbocharger, and related systems, including energy recovery and control electronics. Only four-stroke, six-cylinder engines are allowed. The engines must have DC sensors to verify energy and power requirements, which must be manufactured and calibrated by the FIA-designated suppliers and cannot be installed within the sealed perimeter of the power unit. The mass of the power unit must be at least 151 kg.
Fuel, Oil, and Cooling Systems
The fuel tank must be a single rubber bladder meeting FIA Standard FT5-1999 specifications, and cannot be used five years after its date of manufacture. It must be equipped with a pressure relief valve, fuel tank pressure sensor, and self-sealing breakaway valve. No coolant or oil lines can pass through the cockpit. Only ambient air is allowed to mix with fuel as an oxidant, and fuel must have prior written approval from the FIA.
An electrical system is any command system or process that utilizes semiconductor or thermionic technology. All on-car software versions must be registered with the FIA. Components of the power unit, fuel system, transmission system, brake system, and others must be controlled by the FIA Standard ECU. The ECUs, control sensors, actuators, and FIA monitoring sensors must be homologated by the FIA. Any data acquisition systems must be physically separate and electrically isolated from control electronics.
The transmission must only drive the two rear wheels, and there must not be any system to prevent the driven wheels from spinning or compensating for excessive torque. Clutch operation must be through paddles, and holding positions are not allowed. The car must be able to disengage the clutch for at least 15 minutes when the engine is stopped. The combined mass of the driveline and gear-change components must be no less than 22 kg.
Brakes, Suspension, Steering, Wheels, and Tires
Cars must be fitted with sprung suspensions. Cars must have independent suspension for each axle and must not use any powered device to alter the suspension configuration. Power-assisted steering is not allowed to be electronically controlled. Cars must have one brake system with a single pedal and two master cylinders, each operating two wheels, one for the front wheels and one for the rear wheels. All car brake calipers must be made from aluminum materials.
Car Construction and Survival Cell
The design of the survival cell and bodywork must make the cockpit easily accessible, and the shape of the survival cell must not be visible from the sides. The space around the driver's head must not be more than 550mm, and no head support can be less than 25mm from any structural part of the car. The car must have two roll structures to prevent injury to the driver in case of an inverted crash.
Safety Structures, Safety Equipment, and Homologation
The FIA reserves the right to modify safety regulations if a weakness is discovered and must be informed of any changes. A 50mm aluminum plate must be attached to the front bulkhead of the survival cell. The car must have two impact-absorbing structures on each side of the survival cell and one in front and behind the gearbox. All structures must be solid and symmetrically attached to the survival cell. All cars must have a fire extinguishing system.