A penalty for an ineligible downfield pass happens when an ineligible receiver is too far down the field before the ball is thrown past the line of scrimmage. Typically, an ineligible receiver is an offensive lineman. In the rulebook (for the NCAA and the NFL), ineligible receivers are not allowed to be more than one yard across the line of scrimmage, but officials tend to be lenient with this rule and at times allow ineligible receivers to be three to five yards past the line of scrimmage. This penalty is similar to holding, as it happens on a decent amount of plays, but is only called when it clearly impacts the play. The penalty in both college and the NFL is five yards.
An ineligible downfield pass penalty is when ineligible receivers on the offense are too far down the field before the pass is thrown and before the pass is caught.
The ineligible players tend to be offensive linemen. When ineligible receivers are further than one yard past the line of scrimmage before their quarterback has thrown the ball, this penalty is called. It is a five yard penalty before the next play.
This penalty is only called on the offense and it only called on passing plays. On rushing plays, offensive lineman can be wherever they want on the field (after the snap) to block. On passing plays, they must not go further than one yard past the line of scrimmage because of this rule.
The result of an ineligible downfield pass penalty in football is 5 yards. The offense will start its next play 5 yards back from where they started the previous play.
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When a referee calls the penalty of ineligible downfield pass, they will tap the cop of their head with their right hand and tell which player the penalty was on. They will then announce the upcoming down and yardage to go for the offensive team.