Scoring In Football
All scoring happens in the end zones and each team gets one to defend.
A touchdown is worth six points. A team must carry or catch the ball in the opposing team's end zone while staying inbounds. They also must touch two feet to the ground while holding and controlling the ball for the touchdown to count. After a touchdown, teams are awarded an extra point try.
On the extra point, a kicker kicks the ball in the opposing team's goal post. Extra points are worth one additional point. Most teams elect to kick the ball on the extra point for one point. This is because the extra point kick is a very high percentage play, and is thought of as guaranteed points. However, keep in mind that the extra point try was moved from the two yard line to the 15 yard line preceding the 2015 season. Before the rule change, teams kicked successful extra points 97 percent of the time. This number dropped to 94.2 percent in the first year with the new rule.
Two Point Conversions
A two point conversion is a team's other option after scoring a touchdown. On the conversion, a team must carry or catch the ball in the opposing team's end zone while staying inbounds. Conversions are like touchdowns but they only happen after touchdowns are scored. Conversions are worth two additional points. The play begins at the two yard line.
Safeties happen when the offense makes a mistake in their own end zone with the ball. The offense either goes out of bounds, gets tackled, or fumbles out of bounds in their own endzone. A safety is worth two points for the opposing team, who gets to retain possession of the ball.
There is also an extremely rare one-point safety that only applies during extra points. The same rules as a safety apply, except it is only worth a single point because it occurs during a PAT. This has only happened a few times (ever) in college football, and has never occurred in the NFL.