In basketball, free throws are penalty shots given to the team that the foul was committed against. Free throws are different from field goals in a few ways. A field goal may be worth 2 or 3 points, but a free throw is always worth 1 point. The shot is always taken from the free throw line, and no one is allowed to contest the shot. Free throws are also commonly known as foul shots.
All free throws happen on a team's respective free throw line, which is part of the key. The free throw line is 12 feet wide, 19 feet from the baseline and 15 feet from the backboard. The free throw line also forms the elbows as they intersect with the rest of the key.
Common fouls include most of the basic penalties in basketball, including shooting, blocking, and charging. However, fouls are awarded differently depending on the situation. If a shooting foul is awarded on a 3 point shot, the offense gets 3 free throws, and if a shooting foul is awarded on a 2 point shot, then the offense gets 2 free throws. If any other common foul is given, free throws may or may not be given, based on if the team is in the bonus, also known as the penalty situation. If a team is in the bonus, they will receive free throws, and if they aren't the ball will be inbounded by the team that was fouled.
IMPORTANT: Different leagues have very different rules for how the penalty situation works. You will learn more about the different scenarios later.
Technical fouls are not based on physical contact like the rest of the fouls. You can be given a technical foul for anything the referees decide is an 'unsportsmanlike act', like arguing a call or swearing at another player or referee. Unlike other personal fouls, technicals can be given to players or coaches. The result of committing a technical foul is 1 free throw for the opposing team. Whether the free throw shooter makes the free throw or not, the team that was fouled retains possession of the ball.
Flagrant fouls are grouped into 2 categories. Both result in 2 free throws for the team that was fouled and possession after the shots. Flagrant 1 fouls and flagrant 2 fouls. Flagrant 1 fouls are when a foul is considered 'unnecessary' to the discretion of the referees. Flagrant 2 fouls are considered 'unnecessary and dangerous' and result in the ejection of the player who committed the foul.
Up to six players ine up along the borders of the lane and wait for the free throw shooter to shoot their free throws. Four of these players from the opposing team and two from the free throw shooter's team. All other players on both teams must remain behind the three point line. Each of the defensive players attempt to box out the offensive players from getting an offensive rebound.
Once the free throw shooter is in place behind the free throw line, he will get the ball from the referee to take the free throw. The free throw shooter has 10 seconds to shoot each free throw. Three things can happen on a free throw attempt:
As the game goes on, fouls by each team are counted and when a team commits a certain number of fouls, they will be in the bonus. When a team is in a penalty situation, also known as the bonus, they receive free throws as a result of the other team committing common fouls, even if the foul is not a shooting foul. However, the rules for the penalty situation are completely different in all basketball leagues.
In college basketball, there are two penalty situations:
One and one in college basketball is a penalty situation that grants a team one free throw and an additional free throw if the free throw shooter makes the first one in. A one and one is given when the opposing team reaches 7 fouls in a single half.
The double bonus is a penalty situation only in college basketball that gives a team two free throw attempts every time a personal foul is committed. The double bonus only happens when a team commits 10 or more fouls in a single half.
You can learn more about the double bonus in Basketball Double Bonus.
You can learn more about the bonus in Basketball Bonus.
A substitute free throw shooter can take the place of the original free throw shooter if he is injured on the play, such as after a flagrant foul. The head coach can choose one of the other four players on the floor as a substitute free throw shooter. If a player is substituted out for a free throw, they are not allowed to come back into the game.
A free throw percentage in basketball is a statistic that keeps track of a player's success rate during a season on shooting free throws. To calculate a player's free throw percentage, just divide the number of made free throws by the total amount of free throws attempted. The higher the free throw percentage, the better the player is at making free throws. Free throw shooting is a tell-tale of players having good focus, as well as consistent shooting form.