Foul shots are shots that may be given to a player that is fouled. They are also known as free throw shots. Players take foul shots or free throws at the foul line, also called the free throw line! The number of foul shots a player gets depends on if the opposing team is in a penalty situation and the type of foul that occurs.
When shooting a foul shot, the player shooting must remain behind the free throw line throughout the entire shot. Otherwise, a lane violation is called and the opposing team gets the ball. The remaining players from both teams line up either along each side of the key (to prepare for a possible rebound) or behind the three-point line. Lane violations may also be called on these remaining players for stepping over their respective lines before the shot hits something.
A personal foul is given to a player for violating the rules of the game. If a personal foul against the defense occurs during a field goal attempt, it is a shooting foul and the shooter will receive free throws. If the shot is missed, the shooter will receive two free throws (or three, if it was a three-point attempt). If the shot is good, the shooter receives the points and an extra free throw-this is known as an "and-one".
Team fouls are given to the entire team. Each time any player receives a foul, their respective team receives a foul, too. When a team incurs a certain number of team fouls, they enter a penalty, which allows the opposing team to attempt free throws after non-shooting fouls. You can read more about the team fouls penalty situations in the bonus and double bonus tutorials.
Technical fouls are called in response to unsportsmanlike conduct or defensive three seconds. The team that the foul was performed against elects a player to shoot one free throw. This is followed by the same team inbounding the ball.