When a basketball team is in the bonus they earn extra free throws every time a player on their team is fouled. Teams enter the bonus when the other team commits a certain threshold of fouls in a period, half, or game. The rules for the bonus are different for high school basketball, college basketball, the NBA, and FIBA.
In the NBA, a team will enter a bonus penalty situation if they exceed the team foul limit in a quarter of five or more fouls in a quarter or two fouls in the last 2:00 of a quarter. Every time a player is fouled when their team is in the bonus, the player that was fouled gets two free throws. Technical fouls and offensive fouls do not count towards the team foul limit.
In FIBA, the bonus rules are similar to the NBA and give players two free throws every time a player is fouled. Technical fouls do not count towards the team foul limit. FIBA does not count offensive fouls towards the team foul limit.
In college basketball, a team will enter a bonus penalty situation if they reach seven, eight, or nine team fouls in a half.
Every time a player is fouled in the bonus, the free throw shooter gets one free throw, followed by another free throw if they make the first shot. The college basketball bonus is called one and one. After the tenth foul of a half, a team will enter the double bonus, where they automatically get two shots instead of a one and one. The double bonus is different from the regular bonus.
In high school basketball, teams enter the bonus, one and one, if they exceed seven fouls in a half. If the free throw shooter makes the first free throw, they get a second free throw. Team fouls and the bonus penalty situation resets after the first half and at the start of overtime.
The bonus rule mainly exists to prevent teams from committing too many fouls. Though some teams continue to foul, they are punished for it by giving their opponents free throws.
No, there is only a bonus and a double bonus.
Yes, both teams can be in the bonus at the same time. This can even out some of the advantages and disadvantages involved with the bonus rule.