When a team commits too many fouls in a basketball game, they enter into a penalty situation. Penalty situations award the other team with extra free throws every time a player on their team is fouled. There are two types of penalty situations in basketball:
In the NBA, a team will enter a bonus penalty situation if they exceed the team foul limit in a quarter of five or more fouls in a quarter or two fouls in the last 2:00 of a quarter. Every time a player is fouled when their team is in the bonus, the free throw shooter gets two free throws.
In FIBA, the bonus rules are similar to the NBA and give players two free throws every time a player is fouled. Technical fouls do not count towards the team foul limit. FIBA does not count offensive fouls towards the team foul limit.
Every time a player is fouled in the bonus, the free throw shooter gets one free throw, followed by another free throw if they make the first shot. The college basketball bonus is called one and one. After the tenth foul of a half, a team will enter the double bonus, where they automatically get two shots instead of a one and one.
In high school basketball, teams enter the bonus, one and one, if they exceed seven fouls in a half. If the free throw shooter makes the first free throw, they get a second free throw. Team fouls and the bonus penalty situation resets after the first half and at the start of overtime.