A one-and-one in basketball is a penalty situation in which a team is in the bonus and is given either one or two free throws. In other words, players must make the first free throw to get the second one. This rule can prove to be make or break for teams at the end of a game, emphasizing free throw shooting and consistency in late game situations in which teams may have accumulated fouls.
The one-and-one rule is used in NCAA, high school, and international basketball, but not in the NBA. In high school and college basketball, a team enters the bonus situation when the opposing team commits seven fouls or more in a half. This means that on the seventh foul, a player will be awarded with one or two free throws. If they make the first one, they are given a second; but if they miss the first one, then it becomes a live ball. However, once a team reaches ten fouls or more, the one-and-one rule is no longer in effect and the opposing team will be given two free throws. In international basketball,the one-and-one rule is in effect after a player's fifth foul in a single quarter.
IMPORTANT: Remember that the NBA does not have a 1-and-1 rule. In the NBA, if a team is in the bonus situation, a fouled player will always receive 2 free throws.