Flagrant fouls also count toward both the personal and team foul totals. These are excessive fouls that carry extra significance due to severity of contact. You can learn more about flagrant fouls in the Basketball Flagrant Fouls tutorial.
If a player is called for a personal foul on the court, the other team will either get possession of the ball or free throws, depending on the team foul count. If the fouling team is in a penalty situation, the fouled player may receive one or two free throws (depending on the foul count and competition). These situations are known as the bonus and double bonus.
You can learn more about the bonus, one and one, and the double bonus with these tutorials.
If a player gets called for a personal foul on the player that is shooting the ball, they can get up to three free throws. This is called a shooting foul, and the location of the shooter at the time of the foul earns them free throws accordingly.
You can learn more about shooting fouls here:
There are also non-shooting fouls, which may occur while there is not a shot taking place. These usually result in the fouled team inbounding the ball, but could possibly result in free throws if there is a penalty situation involved.
You can learn more about penalty situations here:
Personal fouls count toward both the player's individual foul count as well as the team's foul count. Team fouls build toward the penalty situations.
You can learn more about team fouls here:
Personal fouls are totaled for each individual player and too many will eject a player from the game (this is called fouling out). If a player commits too many fouls, they will go over the limit and foul out of the game. When a player fouls out, they are benched and cannot return to play.
You can learn more about fouling out here: