One of the main reasons that college basketball is played in halves while the NBA is played in quarters is for more competitive games. In the FIBA rules, there are 10 minute quarters, which are two minutes less than NBA games, but the same total time played 40 minutes as in college. It is just split into quarters than two halves.
The NBA and NCAA basketball have very different season and postseason formats. For the regular season, NBA teams play 82 games and play each team at least 2 times. As for college basketball, teams play around 30 games and play most of their games against conference opponents. In the playoffs 16 NBA teams get a chance to compete for an NBA title with 4 total rounds of 7 game series. The playoff landscape looks vastly different in the college setting. The NCAA tournament is extremely unpredictable, with 68 teams given a shot at the title, anything can happen.
One major difference that has a huge influence on the game is the difference in shot clocks. The NCAA uses a 30 second shot clock while the NBA uses a 24 second shot clock. The NBA is a much faster paced game, with shots coming early in the shot clock and lots of offensive movement and creativity. The college game is much more stagnant, as you will see more inexperienced players waiting until the last second to shoot the ball.
Something that is unique to college basketball is the possession arrow. The possession arrow is simple, whichever team loses the opening tip-off gets the possession arrow. Whenever there is a situation when possession is unclear, the ball goes to the team with the arrow. Examples of this would be when two opposing players are on the ground holding the ball at the same time, when the ball gets stuck on the rim, and at halftime. The arrow then switches and next time the situation arises, the ball goes to the other team. The NBA doesn't have a possession arrow, instead, a jump ball is called in similar situations.
Strategies can vary greatly from the NBA to college basketball. On offense, college basketball is very different from the NBA. Players aren't all as naturally talented as those that are in the NBA, so great individual efforts are hard to come by. College basketball is much more of a team reliant game, as only the top players can really take over a game. In contrast, the NBA is full of players who could take over at any moment. Individuals will have amazing nights where it's all about them, and carry their team to victory. On Defense, college basketball does not have a single best way to play defense, as it changes greatly from team to team. Some teams pride themselves on zone defenses, some on man, and some even on the full court press. In the NBA, teams almost exclusively play man to man defense, and it's hard to find variation.