Archery is scored by valuing each ring of the Archery target that the archers shoot at to score points. The center ring is worth 10 points and the rest of the rings are in sequential order from 9-1. If the arrow misses the target, no points are scored.
The archers shoot the arrows at a target, usually placed some distance away (70 meters in the Olympics, but usually less for indoor archery). The arrow will lodge into the target and the closer to the center the arrow, the more points the archer will score. The center of the target is worth ten points and each ring outwards is one point less. For example, the center is worth ten points, the next ring is worth nine, then eight, etc.
In the Olympics, archers shoot 72 total arrows for 12 phases to receive their initial position in the competition. The total of points for all of their shots are added up, then placed in a bracket. Then, the archers compete in head-to-head knockout rounds where they attempt to outscore one-another. The archer with the most points at the end of the head-to-head wins and moves onto the next round until a winner is determined.
The amount of arrows the archers launch and the number of rounds is determined by the tournament they are competing in.
Ever since April of 2010, archery has been scored using a set system as opposed to the former 12 arrow match. During elimination rounds, three sets of six arrows are used. Meanwhile during the finals, five sets of three arrows are used by each participant.
For each set won a competitor receives two points, and in the event of a tie each participant gets one point. After each competitor has taken their turn, whoever has more points earned from the three arrows will win that individual set. The first to win six sets wins the overall round, and moves on to the next. If neither competitor has won a majority of the sets (either two in a three set match or three out of five in a five set match), the winner is decided via a one arrow shoot-off between the two. In the shoot-off, whichever competitor lands their single arrow closer to the middle is named the winner.
The main difference between the scoring of indoor and outdoor archery is the size of the target face. For outdoor archery, an archer can earn anywhere from 1-10 points per arrow shot, but for indoor archery only between 5-10 points can be earned per shot. This is because indoor targets are significantly smaller. A typical outdoor target face is 122cm while an indoor target face is only 40cm.
A good score in archery is based off of the points earned in a set. A set in archery is made up of a total of three arrows. The maximum score that an archer can earn in one set is 30 points, meaning that each arrow can earn up to 10 points. In order to earn 10 points for one arrow, an archer's arrow must land within the smallest gold circle in the center of the target.
There are two point possibilities that an archer can earn when they hit the black ring on the target. Because the black section contains two consecutive rings, the archer can earn either 3 or 4 points. If the arrow lands in the outer black ring, the archer will earn the 3 points because it is farther away from the gold center. The black section of the target is both the third farthest section from the middle gold section as well as the second closest to the outside of the target. Because of the two black rings located on the outside of the target, when an archer lands their arrow in this section it does not earn many points.